Part 4

Questions 31-40

Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

 

Marine renewable energy (ocean energy)

 

Introduction

More energy required because of growth in population and 31…………………..

What’s needed:

  • renewable energy sources
  • methods that won’t create pollution


Wave energy

Advantage: waves provide a 32………………… source of renewable energy

Electricity can be generated using offshore or onshore systems

Onshore systems may use a reservoir


Problems:

  • waves can move in any 33…………………..
  • movement of sand, etc. on the 34…………………… of the ocean may be affected

Tidal energy

Tides are more 35…………………. than waves


Planned tidal lagoon in Wales:

  • will be created in a 36…………………. at Swansea
  • breakwater (dam) containing 16 turbines
  • rising tide forces water through turbines, generating electricity
  • stored water is released through 37………………….., driving the turbines in the reverse direction


Advantages:

  • not dependent on weather
  • no 38…………………… is required to make it work
  • likely to create a number of 39…………………..


Problem:

  • may ham fish and birds, e.g. by affecting 40…………………. and building up silt

Ocean thermal energy conversion

Uses a difference in temperature between the surface and lower levels

Water brought to the surface in a pipe

 

Cambridge 14

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

 

The History of weather forecasting

Ancient cultures

  • Many cultures believed that floods and other disasters were involved in the creation of the world
  • Many cultures invented 31………………… and other ceremonies to make the weather gods friendly
  • People needed to observe and interpret the sky to ensure their 32………………….
  • Around 650 BC, Babylonians started forecasting, using weather phenomena such as 33………………….
  • By 300 BC, the Chinese had a calendar made up of a number of 34…………………. connected with the weather


Ancient Greeks

  • A more scientific approach
  • Aristotle tried to explain the formation of various weather phenomena
  • Aristotle also described haloes and 35…………………..


Middle Ages

  • Aristotle’s work considered accurate
  • Many proverbs, e.g. about the significance of the colour of the 36…………………., passed on accurate information.


15th-19th centuries

  • 15th century: scientists recognized value of 37…………………. for the first time
  • Galileo invented the 38………………….
  • Pascal showed relationship between atmospheric pressure and altitude
  • From the 17th century, scientists could measure atmospheric pressure and temperature
  • 18th century: Franklin identified the movement of 39…………………..
  • 19th century: data from different locations could be sent to the same place by 40…………………

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

 

Concerts in university arts festival

Concert 1

  • Australian composer: Liza Lim
  • studied piano and 31………………….. before turning to composition
  • performers and festivals around the world have given her a lot of commissions
  • compositions show a great deal of 32…………………. and are drawn from various cultural sources
  • her music is very expressive and also 33…………………….
  • festival will include her 34…………………… called The Oresteia
  • Lim described the sounds in The Oresteia as 35……………………..
  • British composers: Ralph Vaughan Williams, Frederick Delius


Concert
 2

  • British composers: Benjamin Britten, Judith Weir
  • Australian composer: Ross Edwards
  • festival will include The Tower of Remoteness, inspired by nature
  • The Tower of Remoteness is performed by piano and 36……………………..
  • compositions include music for children
  • celebrates Australia’s cultural 37……………………..


Concert 3

  • Australian composer: Carl Vine
  • played cornet then piano
  • studied 38……………………. before studying music
  • worked in Sydney as a pianist and composer
  • became well known as composer of music for 39………………………
  • festival will include his music for the 1996 40………………………..
  • British composers: Edward Elgar, Thomas Adès

 

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

The hunt for sunken settlements and ancient shipwrecks

ATLIT-YAM

  • was a village on coast of eastern Mediterranean
  • thrived until about 7,000 BC
  • stones homes had a courtyard
  • had a semicircle of large stones round a 31…………………
  • cause of destruction unknown – now under the sea
  • biggest settlement from the prehistoric period found on the seabed
  • research carried out into structures, 32………………… and human remains


TRADITIOINAL AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES (AUVs)

  • used in the oil industry, e.g. to make 33………………….
  • problems: they were expensive and 34…………………..


LATEST AUVs

  • much easier to use, relatively cheap, sophisticated


Tests
:

  • Marzamemi, Sicily: found ancient Roman ships carrying architectural elements made of 35………………


Underwater internet:

  • 36……………… is used for short distance communication, acoustic waves for long distance
  • plans for communication with researchers by satellite
  • AUV can send data to another AUV that has better 3…………………, for example


Planned research in Gulf of Baratti:

  • to find out more about wrecks of ancient Roman ships, including

–  one carrying 38………………… supplies; tables may have been used for cleaning the 39…………………

–  others carrying containers of olive oil or 40…………………