Types of diseases

1. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

  • Heart disease
  • Stroke disease
  • Cancer disease
  • Chronic respiratory disease
  • Diabetes disease


2. Communicable diseases

  • Hepatitis A, B & C
  • Common cold
  • Influenza
  • Measles
  • Acute Pharyngitis
  • Acute Bronchitis
  • Pneumonia


Key vocabulary

  • Symptoms (n.) – any feeling of illness or physical or mental change that is caused by a particular disease
  • Robust (adj.) – (of a person or animal) strong and healthy, or (of an object or system) strong and unlikely to break or fail
  • Detrimental (adj.) – causing harm or damage
  • Mitigate (v.) – to make something less harmful, unpleasant, or bad
  • Recuperate (v.) – to become well again after an illness; to get back your strength, health, etc.
  • Hygiene (n.) – the degree to which people keep themselves or their environment clean, especially to prevent disease
  • Aggravate (v.) – to make a bad situation worse
  • Endurance (n.) – the ability to keep doing something difficult, unpleasant, or painful for a long time
  • Regimen (n.) – any set of rules about food and exercise that someone follows, especially in order to improve their health
  • Immunity (n.) – a situation in which you are protected against disease or from legal action
  • Stressor (n.) – something that causes stress (= great worry or emotional difficulty)



  • Aches and pains – minor pains that continue over a period of time
  • To be a bit off color – to feel a little ill
  • To be at death’s door – (informal) to be very ill indeed
  • To be on the mend – to be recovering after an illness
  • To be over the worst – to have got through the most serious or uncomfortable stage of an illness
  • To be under the weather – (informal) to not feel well
  • A blocked nose – When the nose has excess fluid due to a cold
  • To catch a cold – to get a cool
  • A check-up – a physical examination by a doctor
  • A chesty cough – a cough caused by congestion around the lungs
  • Cuts and bruises – minor injuries
  • To feel poorly – to feel ill
  • As fit as a fiddle – to be very healthy
  • To go down with a cold – to become ill
  • To go private – to choose to be treated by commercial healthcare rather than by services offered by the state
  • GP – General Practitioner (family doctor)
  • To have a filling – to have a tooth repaired
  • To have a tooth out – to have a tooth removed
  • A heavy cold – a bad cold
  • To make an appointment – to arrange a time to see the doctor
  • To make a speedy recovery – to recovery quickly from an illness
  • To phone in sick – to call work to explain you won’t be attending work due to illness
  • Prescription charges – money the patient pays for medicine authorized by a doctor
  • To pull a muscle – to strain a muscle
  • A runny nose – a nose that has liquid coming out of it
  • A sore throat – inflammation that causes pain when swallowing



  • In bed shape – in poor physical condition
  • Back on your feet – after an illness or accident, you are physically healthy again
  • Full of beans – a person who is full of beans is lively, active and healthy
  • Off color – your look or feel ill
  • Junk food – food that is bad for us because it contains large amount of harmful substance like artificial coloring, preservatives, salt refined, sugar and so on